# PyTest Coaching Post-Mortem: How to Win Friends and Influence Testing Culture
18 min read...
Have you been fighting the good fight to instill a testing culture in your workplace and team? Have you struggled to get buy-in and adoption?
Well this is the story of how it took a 3 hour workshop with 4 engineers and about 8 weeks background support work but we tripled the unique contributors to our core internal library.
What I had expected to be a largely technical exercise actually took me down the route of reading about psychology and the Transtheoretical Model (opens new window) about the five stages of change that people go through when forming new behaviours.
Which in hindsight makes sense. Simon Sinek in his book Leaders Eat Last (opens new window) talks about how the sum of behaviours is a culture. If I'm trying to affect a culture shift, that means changing a lot of behaviours and guiding my 4 colleagues through these five stages.
For a bit of background, I have written about some technical depth of our testing stack:
As well as these four guiding principles to get your feet wet with testing practices:
- From Zero To Test
- Test and Code Podcast - Episode #86: Teaching Testing Best Practices (opens new window)
These four principles served as the basis for the workshop that was presented.
# Barriers Research
What prompted the workshop was me getting frustrated that the team wasn't learning it in their own time. Over time I've realised that frustration is a symptom that I am the one with poor expectations.
So I went and spoke to everyone on the team individually. In fact I sent them an instant message so no-one could overhear them, they could take their time to answer, and they all gave very honest answers. After 2 I saw a theme but I asked everyone. I can't emphasise this enough, whilst there was overlap, asking everyone meant I got the full spectrum of issues and everyone had something different as much as they had something in common.
The question I asked was “Do you feel like self directed learning has improved? If not what do you think are the barriers?”
The business motivation is that as we become more proficient, we are able to do more with less people, since we weren’t getting more head count anytime soon.
I’ll break them into a few themes and phrase them in the first person to help you hear their voices:
Roadmaps / Syllabus
- I don't know what I don't know
- It is hard to name or list the things you don’t know, in order to generate that list of things to study
- I do not have a roadmap of what I should know
- Even if I do have a list of what to learn how do I prioritise what to learn first?
- There are a lot opaque terms flying around
- I do not know what is relevant to me
- I do not know why we need it.
Resources / Time Allocation
- I do not have starter reference materials
- Everyone learns differently though, so providing the same starter materials can be a wasteful activity
- I do not have time to seek training materials
- If I do have time to seek training materials
- Sometimes there are too many resources -> it is overwhelming -> I give up
- I do not have time to train/self-study using those materials in business hours
- pre-emptive self-study is not seen as a priority.
- Eg learning about databricks when there is not an immediate need next week.
- Sprints focus on short term productivity and lose sight of long term development.
- I do not appear short term productive even if it has long term benefits.
Stress / Fatigue / Hurdles
- The first hurdle is a lot of stress
- Approaching a new topic has an anxiety of anticipation of the unknown
- Every new topic, this stress is there, and it is why I need space in between topics
- Am I already training as fast as I can?
- Even with infinite time it has a limit and is exhausting
- I may already be doing my best and there is no more juice left to squeeze
- Expectations of pace are creating stress, which makes the process slower
- I liken this to a CPU overheating and throttling itself
- Am I creating some of this pace expectation on myself? Am I creating my own stress?
- How do we (leadership) know the training and study is working? What does that look like?
- Visibility of active study may be in private so if it happens it is hard to see
- Knowing how to do something proficiently looks like the absence of the "asking questions pain points".
- So it is hard to see the absence.
- Are the pain point questions changing to different topics?
- Are the pain point questions getting more complex as the simple things become proficient?
- Should we more visibly celebrate wins?
So the "workshop" preparation started 2 sprints in advance. I sent out an email to the team explaining the steps of what we would do and when we would do it. The upcoming sprint we had already committed work so it was to be in the following sprint.
We coordinated a day that would be the least disruptive to sit down for 3 hours together, which turned out to be 1-4pm on a Friday afternoon. We did 3x 50 minute blocks with 10 minute breaks. Everyone had their laptops and we wouldn't move on until everyone had their dev environment setup or managed to successfully complete each step. We have remote workers so everyone has video conferencing tools open on their laptops anyhow. So when anyone had an issue we got them to screen share on the call and I tried to get the team to guess at helping each other fix it or see what to try next.
The following Monday and Tuesday were the "homework" days. These were during office hours but everyone was working on the same exercises at the same time, so if they ran into issues they could help each other. So this accidentally became a team bonding activity too.
That's where it was supposed to end the toy examples and we get back to our planned sprint work. However some had finished the toy example and were onto merging real contributions to our core library so we took the extra day and got code coverage up from 75% to 84% AND reduced the running time of the test suite from 1.5 minutes to 12 seconds!
Return on Investment
The next 3 sprints I needed help fleshing out a big chunk of work in our core library which was well defined and could be done in parallel. It was lifting code from our old monolith to the new library AND adding tests.
The new CI gatekeeping wouldn't allow the contributions without appropriate test coverage.
During these 3 sprints we held Tuesday and Thursday 1 hour code review sessions. Not everyone presented but just who needed help next or was close to getting their PR merged.
We managed to triple the unique contributors to our library, which de-risked me and my US counterpart as being the only ones that understood the library. It also meant we were able to hit a tight timeline to punch out a lot of new contributions.
# The Task
The task in the workshop was simple enough and well structured.
First hour - Dev Environment
- We setup the dev environment.... this took the first hour.
Second hour - Using CI
- We looked at the existing tests and deleted one of the test files.
- Created a new branch each and committed the change.
- Everyone opened up a Pull Request (PR) which triggered the CI test system.
- It failed but we each looked at the test output and the code coverage report.
- We added a Happy Path test, committed it and pushed the change.
- We looked at the updated CI output and Code Coverage results.
- This took up to the second hour.
Third Hour - Testing locally
- We then ran the tests locally and looked at the code coverage report locally.
- We added a Sad Path test and looked at the code coverage report and explained what branch coverage is versus line coverage.
- From here we looked at the various ways of driving pytest from the command line.
- We also had open ended discussions about "what is a good test?"
The homework task was to get test coverage passing again and if they got stuck they could use git and checkout the original test file from
master to "check the back of the book".
What was great about this task, was that this particular python class, had 98% code coverage and for the life of me I couldn't figure out how to get that last branching condition covered.
One of my colleagues got this test file to 100% and taught me a lot about the differences between
__getattr__ dunder methods as she did a deep dive to figure it out. The benefit of being surrounded by perfectionists.
From there I showed her snapshot testing with VCRpy (opens new window) and that is where we resolved some tests that still reached out to network resources everytime the tests ran. Which is what shaved a minute off our test times.
# Code Reviews
I shared this video on Code Review Best Practices - Trisha Gee (opens new window) with the team as (in my opinion) it is the canonical explanation of how code reviews can have different purposes.
- Gate Keeping
- Draft Proposals (early feedback)
- Educational presentations (the reviewers are actually learners).
This was really important to set a tone and a psychologically safe space for the team to present half finished work and feel safe and not judged.
For the simpler questions I encouraged others to step up and answer even if I knew how to answer it.
For questions that stumped me, I made it clear I hadn't seen it before but let's all solve it together and proceed to awkwardly google things and ask each other to "Got to line 98, there is a typo".
No one was trying to beat their chest and be the smartest person in the room.
We checked our ego's at the door and worked as a team.
# Coaching Psychology
Now that I have covered the key events, I want to layer on some of the Coaching Psychology (opens new window) theory to this narrative.
The coach-client relationship is key to providing just enough guidance to let the client self-actualise. In fact Coaching Psychology assumes everyone wants to self improve given the opportunity.
So the coach-client relationship needs to be more than intellectually empathetic but emotionally empathetic as well, since you are about to go on a growth journey together. So that requires, trust, respect, patience and empathy.
# GROW Model
- Way Forward
The GROW model (opens new window), also comes up in the well known Manager Tools: "Basics" - Coaching (opens new window) but under the acronym GRPA: Goals-Resources-Plan-Action.
I've started reading Measure What Matters (opens new window), and they describe a similar idea with Google's format of OKR's or Objectives and Key Results.
They all have the idea of taking a journey.
Let's set a Goal or an Objective which is an aspirational compass bearing.
But you need to assess where you are starting from.
So what is our Reality and/or Resources that we will need?
Then we need to identify Obstacles and concrete steps in a Way Forward
The version in Manager Tools stipulates that the Actions or Way Forward should be a SMART goal (opens new window). With more emphasis on the Measurable and Time bound.
These two aspects are what close the loop with the coach-client relationship to give that feedback and reinforcement cycle on the journey.
Keeping in mind that behavioural changes take at least 1-2 months but we also do not have infinite time either.
The measurable part is interesting, because a vector has two parts, a magnitude and an orientation. So we measure the magnitude of our progress but we also check that we are still progressing along the correct compass bearing. While we are at it, lets check if that compass bearing is still the right direction at all! We may need need to pivot and change the direction after a while and that's totally valid.
So after some coaching from my team lead suggesting I use the GROW model on my self, I sat down and applied the GROW model to figure out how I needed to GROW to become an effective technical leader. Which is what surfaced all of the coaching psychology research.
I didn't formally apply it to the team but kept the vector of growth analogy in the back of my mind and tried to make sure everyone's vectors were aligned and pointing the same way and removed obstacles where possible.
# Transtheoretical model (TTM)
The ProChange (opens new window) website has excellent coverage of TTM as it applies to affecting postive health changes like quitting smoking and weight loss.
- Precontemplation (not ready)
- Contemplation (getting ready)
- Preparation (ready)
There is also a sixth stage of termination where the changed behaviour has served it's purpose and transition out of using it. We will disregard that for this coverage.
TTM is more than the listed stages of change. There are 10+ processes of change but I'll let you read about those on your own.
Two of the key outcomes for TTM are Decisional Balance and Self Efficacy.
The idea is that the balance sheet of Pros and Cons are tipped in favor of the new behaviour. This is forming a new attitude and internal dialogue.
The Self-Efficacy is the measure of how consistently do they chose the new behaviour instead of relapsing to old behaviours in times of stress or tight deadlines. How well does the Decisional Balance stand up when there are new cons thrown at it?
This is where the coach comes in for those times when someone is unsure or at risk, they will seek guidance on "Why are we writing tests?" or "I have a tight deadline, can I skip writing these tests?"
Remind them of the short term deadline versus the long term benefits of automating the work. Often management use the "I'm the boss" card and engineer forget they have a responsibility to build robust systems.
Of course there is a pragmatic trade-off, but the push back from engineering has to be more than zero.
Next we will talk about how the TTM stages of change map to ADKAR scores.
# ADKAR Scores
The ADKAR score (opens new window) is away of assessing where someone is at in the stages of change.
- Awareness of the need to change.
- Desire to support the change.
- Knowledge of how to change.
- Ability to demonstrate skills and behaviours.
- Reinforcement to make the change.
The idea being to rate each of these five aspects on a scale of 1-5 and if any are a 3 or lower stop there.
- I am aware I drink too much coffee (5),
- I do not desire to change my coffee behaviours (1)
- I know how to change my coffee consumption behaviour (4)
- I have previously demonstrated skills to change coffee consumption over 9 months (4)
- I have no accountability to reinforce that behaviour right now (1).
Focusing on giving me knowledge and skills to reduce my coffee consumption won't make a difference because an earlier score is low. I have no desire....
Lucky for me, my team had seen enough issues creep into production AND manual testing was time consuming and painful. They had also seen, by example, the momentum I had developing the new library thus far with automated testing.
So they score high for awareness and desire.
So the workshop was designed to seed them with knowledge.
The homework task was designed to give them opportunity to demonstrate ability.
The code review sessions were designed to reinforce the knowledge, skills and behaviours.
So let's just say that if they were not aware or did not desire change...
That is a much harder problem to solve and worthy of another blog post when the day comes that I run into that.
As I have mentioned a few times, we tripled the number of unique contributors to our core library. We smashed out a block of work and everyone has made meaningful contributions and tests on code that is now in production. Not just toy examples but meaningful contributions.
You also see that we had multiple releases in the same day sometimes. This sort of cadence was previously unheard of!
The team has come to embrace the sense of security the test automation provides as it goes green reinforcing that trust and red are opportunities to catch defects before they hit customer facing systems.
We have caught many bugs where "It worked on my computer" but not on CI because an installed dependency wasn't added to the
Pipfile for example.
We have a process for seeding new learning across the team but also a mechanism to reinforce those learnings and keep each other accountable.
I have thrown in the reading list three other books that I have had recommended to me and I'm sure have impacted me and my ability to deliver on interpersonal effectiveness:
- Radical Candor - Kim Scott (opens new window)
- Team of Teams - General Stanley McChrystal (opens new window)
- Extreme Ownership - Jocko Willink and Leif Babin (opens new window)
All three deal with a variety of real life situations from the battle field to the office. All are about how to handle interpersonal dynamics as well on handling conflict in a healthy and tension diffusing way.
Handy arrows to have in your quiver.
I'm always looking for recommendations around these topics to fill up my reading backlog so reach out to me on twitter or linkedin if you have suggestions on where I should read next.
Coaching and technical leadership is a really rewarding challenge that I hadn't quite expected in my career. It also requires a lot of long range thinking as the time it takes to change people's behaviours is measured in weeks and months. I have become too used to computers doing what I want in seconds and minutes.
It's also been an interesting dive into a tangent field of study of Coaching Psychology.
Have fun testing!